determination (n.)
In some ways I believe I epitomise the average New Zealander: I have modest abilities, I combine these with a good deal of determination, and I rather like to succeed.
Sir Edmund Hillary (1919-2008)
The Remarkables, Queenstown, New Zealand. © Christian Mehlführer, Wikimedia Commons. Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0.
value (n.)
The terms of justice, the terms of science, the value of government, are the everlasting ramparts of Greece and Rome – the father and mother of civilisation.
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), ‘The Uses of Reading’
The theatre at Delphi, Greece. © William Neuheisel, Wikimedia Commons. Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0.
further (adv.)
If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Letter to Robert Hook
Monasteries of the Meteora, Greece. © Wolfgang Miller, Wikimedia Commons. Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0.
light (adj.)
Let your boat of life be light, packed with only what you need.
Jerome K. Jerome (1859-1927), ‘Three Men in a Boat’
Rowing boats, Derwent Water, Cumbria. © Krautrock, Wikimedia Commons.
honest (adj.)
I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), ‘I keep six honest serving-men’
Wild asiatic asses, India. © Shaunak-Chitgopkar, Wikimedia Commons. CC BY-SA 4.0.
english language and history .com
Passages from history, myth and fiction
for work in grammar and composition
UK summer time
1
On This Day
The Feast of the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325)
Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks (1453) 1 post
The Fall of Constantinople
Music: William Herschel
May 29th, 1453: Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks
Hospitality and sympathy, but no help - the Byzantine Emperor learns a bitter lesson about western diplomacy.

FROM 1399 to 1403, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II toured Europe, drumming up support for the defence of Constantinople from the growing threat of the Turks. He even visited London, where Henry IV treated him to a Christmas joust.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Summon. Invite. Invitation.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Kiss. Leave. Refuse.

Use together in one sentence: Pass. Civilian. Huddle.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

The Judgment of Solomon
Music: Richard Jones
The tenth-century King of Israel demonstrated his legendary wisdom in a delicate custody battle.

SOON after he was crowned King of Israel, two women appeared before Solomon, asking him to judge their case.

They were prostitutes who lived in the same house, and both had given birth within days of each other. According to one, the other had very craftily swapped babies after finding that her own had died in the night.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Pretty. Quite. Rather.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Say. Turn. Find.

Use together in one sentence: Day. Give. Crafty.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

Love at First Bite
Music: Robert Farnon
Sam felt that his epic romance might have started more promisingly.

SHE was not the prettiest girl he had ever seen. She was the third prettiest. He had an orderly mind, one capable of classifying and docketing girls. But there was a subtle something about her, a sort of how-shall-one-put-it, which he had never encountered before.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Strip. Stripe.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Find. Doubt. Make.

Use together in one sentence: Before. Covering. Docket.

More games: Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

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Beginner’s Luck
Music: George Frederick Bristow
As proof that ‘Providence protects children and idiots’, Mark Twain recalls his first taste of ten-pin bowling.

I WAS given an alley all to myself. The boys explained the game to me, and they also explained to me that there would be an hour’s play, and that the player who scored the fewest ten-strikes in the hour would have to provide oysters and beer for the combination.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Contented. Contentious.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Stand. End. Result.

Use together in one sentence: At. Boy. Who.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

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The Last Commandment
Music: George Frideric Handel
Northumbrian poet Cynewulf imagines the farewell between Jesus and his Apostles, forty days after his resurrection.

“BE glad of heart! Never shall I wander; my love shall follow you unceasingly. My might I give you, and I am with you always, even unto the end, that through my gift none shall ever lack God.”

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Enemy. Enmity.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Go. Hand. End.

Use together in one sentence: Strength. Their. Never.

More games: Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

Happy Government
Music: Charles Villiers Stanford
Lady Glencora scolds the Earl of Brentford for political inactivity, but he warns her to be careful what she wishes for.

“WHAT a nice, happy, lazy time you’ve had of it since you’ve been in,” said she to the Earl.

“I hope we have been more happy than lazy,” said the Earl.

“But you’ve done nothing. Mr Palliser has twenty schemes of reform, all mature; but among you you’ve not let him bring in one of them. The Duke and Mr Mildmay and you will break his heart among you.”

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Raise. Rise. Arise.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Scheme. Fault. Look.

Use together in one sentence: Worst. Among. Mature.

More games: Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

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