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Edmond Halley
Music: William Herschel
Edmond Halley will forever be associated with the comet named after him, but his greatest achievement was getting Sir Isaac Newton to publish ‘Principia Mathematica’.

AT nineteen, Edmond Halley was assistant to John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal at the Greenwich Observatory, and at twenty-two he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, in recognition of his work mapping constellations and observing weather patterns on the island of St Helena in the south Atlantic.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Primary. Primitive.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Return. Research. Change.

Use together in one sentence: Ingenious. Expense. Give rise to.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

Heracles at the Crossroads
Music: Elias Parish Alvars
The gods had given Heracles every grace of body and mind, but there was one thing he must do for himself: choose how to use them.

HERACLES’S stepfather Amphitryon trained his boy in all the warlike arts, and did not forget music and letters.

But knowledge does not always confer wisdom, and after Heracles, blinded by rage, had killed his over-critical music tutor with a single blow, he took himself deep into the forest to think.

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More games: Précis. Sevens.

Mrs Clements
Music: John Garth
Mrs Clements of Durham is not a household name, but the product she invented is.

IN 1390, Richard II’s chef included a recipe for mustard in his book The Forme of Cury. Monks on Lindisfarne in Northumberland were grinding their own mustard a century later, and Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire was an early centre of the trade.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Flower. Flour.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Firm. Use. Book.

Use together in one sentence: When. Mustard. Century.

More games: Précis. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

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Timothy Hackworth
Timothy Hackworth (1786-1850) turned steam locomotives into a reliable commercial success.

TIMOTHY Hackworth was locomotive superintendent on the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the world’s first public railway using steam locomotives, from its opening in 1825. His task was to keep the line’s primitive steam locomotives running and earning revenue.

Often overshadowed by his larger-than-life employer, George Stephenson, Hackworth was the man who made railways reliable.

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More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw.

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The Tea-Cup Revolutionary
Music: John Field
Josiah Wedgwood, a village potter whose disability meant he could not use a potter’s wheel, brought about a quiet revolution in English society.

A NASTY bout of smallpox when he was eleven left Josiah Wedgwood so lame that he could not work the pedal of a potter’s wheel.

But pottery was all he knew, so in 1759 he turned from manufacture to innovation, employing others for design and production, and burying himself in the chemistry of his trade.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Revolution. Revolt.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Design. Fine. Manufacture.

Use together in one sentence: Factory. Specially. Order.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

Fashionable Freedom
Music: Samuel Coleridge-Taylor
Josiah Wedgwood’s promotional gift made Abolitionism fashionable.

NOR was the philanthropy of the late Mr. Wedgwood less instrumental in turning the popular feeling in our favour. He took the seal of the committee for his model, and produced a beautiful cameo.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Dress. Sport. Wear.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: See. Box. Cause.

Use together in one sentence: Once. At length. Take.

More games: Sevens. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.