Posts tagged Discovery and Invention (68)
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Jan Ladislav Dussek
Discovery and Invention
King George III (1760-1820) to Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
John Dalton
At fifteen John Dalton was a village schoolmaster in Kendal; at forty he had published the first scientific theory of atoms.

JOHN Dalton, a weaver’s boy, began his teaching career at fifteen, helping his elder brother to run a Quaker school in Kendal. He deepened his education by contributing maths problems to The Ladies’ Diary, and reading scientific works to Kendal’s distinguished natural philosopher John Gough, who was blind, in exchange for lessons in Latin and Greek.

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No. 1
John Playford
Discovery and Invention
Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
A Bit of Luck for his Lordship
George Stephenson was only too pleased to save the former Prime Minister from himself.
By Samuel Smiles
(1812-1904)

GEORGE was standing with his back to the fire, when Lord Howick called to see Robert. George began, “Now, my Lord, I know very well what you have come about: it’s that atmospheric line in the north; I will show you in less than five minutes that it can never answer.”

“If Mr Robert Stephenson is not at liberty, I can call again,” said his Lordship.

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No. 2
Charles Avison
Discovery and Invention
King George III (1760-1820)
Spinning Jenny
James Hargreaves’s historic invention was not without its critics when it first appeared.

IN the 1760s, John Kay’s new ‘flying shuttle’ looms allowed Colchester’s weavers to double their output. More cloth at lower prices promised full order-books and new jobs across the textile industry, but spinning was still a laborious handicraft, and could not supply enough yarn. The looms fell silent, and unemployed weavers smashed them, sending Kay in fear to Paris.

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No. 3
Muzio Clementi
Discovery and Invention
King George III (1760-1820)
Not for Sale
Sir Humphry Davy pleads with Britain’s scientists not to be bought by Napoleon’s gold.
By Sir Humphry Davy
(1778-1829)

SCIENCE for its progression requires patronage, - but it must be a patronage bestowed, a patronage received, with dignity. It must be preserved independent. It can bear no fetters, not even fetters of gold, and least of all those fetters in which ignorance or selfishness may attempt to shackle it.

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No. 4
2 two-part story
Gustav Holst
Discovery and Invention
Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
Japan’s First Railway
As Japan’s ruling shoguns resist the tide of progress, a Nagasaki-based Scottish entrepreneur steps in.

FOR over two centuries, Japan isolated herself from the rest of the world, a policy vigorously pursued by the Tokugawa shogunate that had sidelined the Emperors. But from 1853, zealous American, Russian and British merchants and their modern wares were grudgingly admitted into selected Japanese ports.

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No. 5
2 two-part story
Cipriani Potter
Discovery and Invention
Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
Thomas Brassey
The unsung surveyor from Cheshire, who built railways and made friends across the world.

THOMAS Brassey, son of a prosperous Cheshire farmer, began his career in road-building as an apprentice to surveyor William Lawton, on Thomas Telford’s Shrewsbury to Holyhead road. Brassey rose from apprentice to partner, and Lawton and Brassey relocated to Birkenhead to make road-building materials.

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No. 6
Louise Farrenc
Discovery and Invention
Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
A Leader by Example
George Stephenson won the admiration of French navvies by showing them how a Geordie works a shovel.
By Samuel Smiles
(1812-1904)

WHEN examining the works of the Orleans and Tours Railway, Mr Stephenson, seeing a large number of excavators filling and wheeling sand in a cutting, at a great waste of time and labour, went up to the men and said he would show them how to fill their barrows in half the time.

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No. 7
2 two-part story
Elias Parish Alvars
Discovery and Invention
King William IV (1830-1837)
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Businessmen in Liverpool engaged George Stephenson to build one of his new-fangled railways.

ON May 24th, 1823, Liverpool corn merchant Henry Booth founded the Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company, to build nothing less than the world’s first intercity railway. The canals had created lucrative markets by linking the port at Liverpool to bustling manufacturing towns inland, but were overwhelmed by rising demand.

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No. 8
William Croft
Discovery and Invention
King Charles II (1649-1685) to Queen Anne (1702-1714)
Abraham Darby I
To the poor of England, the Worcestershire man gave affordable pots and pans, and to all the world he gave the industrial revolution.

ABRAHAM Darby learnt his trade grinding malt in Birmingham, managing the brass mills and coke-fired malting ovens. In 1699, he founded a malt-mill of his own in Bristol, and branched out into brass cookware.

Together with his apprentice John Thomas, Darby developed a method for casting utensils in sand rather than clay, improving on techniques learnt during a visit to Holland in 1704.

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No. 9
Sir Arthur Sullivan
Discovery and Invention
Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
Paxton’s Palace
Sir Joseph Paxton not only designed the venue for the Great Exhibition of 1851, he embodied the festival’s most cherished principles.

JOSEPH Paxton one day confided to John Ellis MP, a fellow board-member of the Midland Railway, that he had designed a building truly fit to host the forthcoming Great Exhibition of 1851, the exciting showcase for Imperial science and industry destined for Hyde Park. Ellis gave Paxton just nine days to submit a formal application.

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No. 10
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Polywords (185)
Make as many words as you can from the letters of a nine-letter word.
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Added on Thursday February 15th, 2018
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Turn one word into another, changing just one letter each time.
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A mini-crossword of everyday vocabulary and general knowledge.
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Find one common letter that will turn three words into three new ones.
Latest: Triplet No. 23
Guess these words letter by letter – before the cats are gone!
See how ingenious you can be in combining three randomly chosen words in one sentence.
Compose sentences showing the difference in meaning, grammar or usage between these words.
Practise your basic arithmetic, from multiplation tables to percentages.
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Take command of English grammar and composition with these traditional exercises.
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A word search game with a dash of strategy.

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From our Archive
King James II was forced off the throne in favour of his daughter Mary, and a new English constitution was born.
King Saul’s jealousies drove those who loved him away, but David was a very different kind of leader.
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Polyword ‘Tier’
Make as many words as you can with the letters below. All your words must be at least four letters long, and must also include the highlighted letter. What’s the nine-letter word?

SEE how many words you can make using the letters below. All your words must be at least 4 letters long, and must include the letter (change).

We found commonly used words, plus one 9-letter word. Can you do better?

Use each letter only once. But if there are e.g. two As, you can used them both.

Don’t count proper nouns such as April, Zeus, or Newcastle (pretty much anything that has to be spelled with a capital letter at the start), or acronyms like HMRC.

Don’t just add -S for plurals or third person singular verbs, e.g. CAT → CATS or SPEAK → SPEAKS.

More Word Games
A word search game with a dash of strategy.
Guess these words letter by letter – before the cats are gone!
Do you know ‘a temperature scale’ (6 letters), and ‘a bit of useful advice’ (3 letters)?
Changing one letter at a time, see if you can start with GOAT and finish with HERD.
Find the magic letter that can change three words into three different ones.