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Ottoman Empire (6)
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The Fall of Constantinople
Music: William Herschel
Hospitality and sympathy, but no help - the Byzantine Emperor learns a bitter lesson about western diplomacy.

FROM 1399 to 1403, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II toured Europe, drumming up support for the defence of Constantinople from the growing threat of the Turks. He even visited London, where Henry IV treated him to a Christmas joust.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Who’s. Whose.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Visit. Support. Kiss.

Use together in one sentence: Treat. Cower. Kiss.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

St Ahmed
Music: Alexei Fyodorovich Lvov
A Turkish official was itching to know the secret behind a Russian slave girl’s personal charm.

AHMED was a curator of the library in seventeenth-century Constantinople. He had two Russian slave women, one a beautiful young girl whom he kept at home, and the other an older lady he allowed to go to church.

When she returned, Ahmed noticed, the two women would be closeted together for a time, and afterwards a delightful fragrance would hang around the younger one.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Sever. Severe. Several.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Notice. Return. Light.

Use together in one sentence: About. Whenever. Conversation.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

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The Spy
Music: Edward Elgar
In 1910, Constantine Zervakos, a young monk from the Greek island of Paros, found himself charged with espionage.

ON his way home to Paros after a long-anticipated visit to Mount Athos, a young monk named Constantine Zervakos decided he had enough time before his ship left Thessalonica to nip into the Turkish-controlled city and visit the church of St Demetrius.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Ship. Boat.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Tap. Rush. Watch.

Use together in one sentence: Fellow. Days. Named.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

Florence Nightingale
Music: Charles Villiers Stanford
Florence used her logical mind and society connections to save thousands of lives in the Crimean War.

AFTER reading distressing newspaper accounts of servicemen wounded in the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale, who at that time ran a women’s clinic in London, confided her frustrations to Sidney Herbert at the War Office.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Several. Various.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Need. Order. Run.

Use together in one sentence: Fluent. Death-toll. Government.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

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The Crimean War
Music: Sir William Sterndale Bennett
It was the first war to be covered by embedded correspondents, and the public did not like what they read.

ON 31st May, 1853, Tsar Nicholas I of Russia dispatched troops to Moldavia and Wallachia, long a matter of dispute with the Ottoman Empire, ostensibly to bolster Orthodox Christians there.

After the Russians sank Turkish ships at Sinope on the Black Sea, Britain, Austria and France, fearing Russian expansion into the West, declared war on 28th March, 1854.

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The Sacred Snakes of Kefalonia
Once a year, regular as clockwork, the little snakes slither into the convent for a Feast of the Virgin Mary.

ONE day in 1705, the nuns of a convent on Kefalonia heard that pirates were toiling up the hill, intent on rape and plunder. So they hurried to their chapel, where they kept a miraculous icon of the Virgin Mary.

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Grammar and Composition

Distinguish using sentences: Hot. Tepid. Warm.

Use as a noun and also as a verb: Hurry. Shape. Move.

Use together in one sentence: Presumably. Presently. During.

More games: Précis. Sevens. Jigsaw. Confusables. Spinner. Opposites. Verb or Noun? Active or Passive? Subject and Object. Adjectives. Word Classes.

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